What is a vasculitis?
The concept “vasculitis” is understood as group of diseases which are followed by an inflammation of walls of blood vessels. At a disease several tissues and organs are surprised: blood supply of an organ is broken, blood vessels are narrowed that leads to death of tissues. Depending on caliber of blood vessels and their sort vasculites can be divided into the following groups: an arteritis (arterial walls are involved in pathological process); arteriolit (fine arteries are injured, arterioles); a capillaritis (capillaries are involved); phlebitis (inflammatory process is localized in venous walls).
Besides, allocate: illness of Kawasaki; hemorrhagic vasculitis; Takayasu’s illness; nonspecific aortoarteriit; Wegener’s granulomatosis; Cherdzha-Stross’s syndrome; Bekhchet’s illness; the admixed vasculitis; allergic vasculitis of a skin.
Causes of illness
It is necessary to notice that two forms of vasculites allocate: primary and secondary. Primary vasculitis acts as an independent disease which cause isn’t found out today. The secondary vasculitis is understood as damage of walls of blood vessels at various diseases.
The secondary vasculitis can be a symptom at: acute and chronic diseases of an infectious genesis; genetic predisposition of the specific person to emergence of a vasculitis; individual reaction to bacterinations; contact to biological poisons which are a part of some medicinal preparations, for example, which are applied at oncologic diseases; influence on an organism of Serums or chemicals; strong overheat of an organism; long influence of low temperature; injuries of various localization and parentage; thermal damages of a skin, in particular, at solar combustions.
The listed factors, in particular, in total, can lead to the fact that the antigenic structure of tissues of blood vessels will change therefore to be started autoimmune process at which the organism will begin to perceive own body tissues as foreign. The similar mistake in recognition leads to the fact that the immune system begins to attack the tissues, injuring blood vessels.
Symptoms and photo of a disease
At patients with a vasculitis similar symptoms among which there is a disease debut in the form of a feverish state are observed. It is necessary to notice that temperature is increased not always, its fluctuation within a day becomes perceptible. Each peak of fervescence, as a rule, correspond to emergence of new dermal rashes. In addition at patients appetite loss the general delicacy and increased fatigue, loss of appetite and headaches, mental disturbances and vomiting, nasal allocations and tussis, sometimes with a blood, deterioration in vision and syncopes, frequent stomatites and inflammations of eyes, tumescences in temples and an ulcer on genitals become perceptible.
It is necessary to carry small hemorrhages which at initial stages of a disease are localized on a skin then a hemorrhage occur in joints, muscles and the nervous terminations to a characteristic sign of vasculites. The probability of a lesion of a concrete organ depends on a vasculitis. For example, at damage of coronary vessels problems in work of heart become perceptible that is caused by disturbance of its delivery. At localization of pathological process in vessels of kidneys development of a nephritis, kidney infarct, etc. is observed. At the vasculites injuring joints at the initial stages only characteristic symptoms of arthritis whereas itself diseases begins to prove only several weeks later or months are observed. The following is characteristic of the arthritises bound to vasculites: joint pains arise without influence of any external factors (for example, bruises); largly joint arthritis (as a rule, good-quality current); the chronic or long course of a disease, at the same time joints of brushes symmetrically are surprised, but their deformation isn’t observed. The vasculitis is characterized by a long and chronic current with periodic exacerbations, difficulties in treatment and advance. The forecast directly depends on localization of pathological process, a form of a disease and a lesion of organs.
Diagnostics and treatment
It is necessary to notice that diagnostics of vasculites is simple when involving in pathological process of a large number of internals whereas at the minimum changes to establish the correct diagnosis extremely difficult. The diagnosis is confirmed by laboratory researches (signs of allergic and inflammatory process), ultrasonic and X-ray inspection of a blood and internals, a biopsy, a tomography. Treatment of a vasculitis is selected under the specific patient as it in many respects depends on type of a lesion of blood vessels, localization of pathological process and prevalence of a disease. Treatment is carried out without fail, at the same time the following aims are pursued: to prevent irreversible damages of internals; to reach remission; to reduce risk of development of various complications; to enlarge life expectancy of the specific patient. For treatment of vasculites medicinal preparations which are capable to suppress development by an organism of antibodies are used and to make tissues less sensitive. For such purposes to patients cytostatics and glucocorticoids which suppress development of antibodies and reproduction of cells are prescribed. Good results manage to be achieved at use of such methods of treatment as hemosorption and a plasma exchange. At mild forms of vasculites or stay of the patient in a stage of remission non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be prescribed (for example, Indomethacinum or Voltarenum). In addition the drugs preventing formation of thrombi and reducing permeability of a wall of blood vessels are added to treatment.
Prophylaxis of a vasculitis on the basis of the reasons causing development of a vasculitis is recommended: to temper an organism; to eliminate negative impact of the environment on own organism; to exclude unreasonable reception of medicines or to be vaccinated without the reasons, obvious on that.